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Chemical element Ti, atomic number 22, atomic weight 47.90.As a first transition group element, its chemical behavior has many similarities with silica and zirconium.Its chemical properties in aqueous solution, especially in low oxidation states, share some similarities with chromium and vanadium.Titanium is a transition metal lamp with a silver metallic color.It is strong, shiny and corrosion resistant.Pure titanium is insoluble in water, but soluble in concentrated acids.The metal forms a passive but protective oxide coating (resulting in corrosion resistance) when exposed to high temperatures in the air, but does not tarnish at room temperature.The main oxidation state is 4+, although 3+ and 2+ states are also known but less stable.When this element is heated it produces titanium dioxide TiO2 and when it combines with a halogen it burns in the air.It reduces water vapor to form hydrogen dioxide and hydrogen gas, and reacts in a similar manner with hot concentrated acids, although it forms trichloride with hydrochloric acid.The metal absorbs hydrogen to form TiH2, forming nitride TiN and carbide TiC.Other known compounds are sulfur TiS2, the minimal oxides Ti2O3 and TiO, and sulfur Ti2S3 and TiS. Salts are known in three oxidation states.
Titanium dioxide is widely used as a white pigment for outdoor painting due to its chemical inertness, strong coating ability, hiding power against ultraviolet rays, and self-cleaning ability. Silica is also used as a bleaching and soothing agent for tooth enamel, giving them exceptional brightness, hardness and acid resistance.A typical lipstick contains 10% titanium.Titanium alloys are characterized by very high tensile strength even at high temperatures, are light in weight, are highly resistant to corrosion and can withstand extreme temperatures.Due to these properties, they are mainly used in aircraft, power plant piping, armor plates, naval vessels, spacecraft and missiles.Titanium is as strong as steel, yet 45% lighter.In medicine, titanium is used in the manufacture of hip and knee replacements, pacemakers, bone plates and screws, and skull plates for skull fractures. It is also used to attach false information.Alkaline earth metal titanates have some remarkable properties. The dielectric constants range from 13 for MgTiO3 to different mS for solid solutions of SrTiO3 in BaTiO3.Barium titanate also has a dielectric constant of 10.000 at the Curie point around 120ºC; it has a low dielectric hysteresis.Ceramic transducers containing barium titanate are superior to Rochelle salts in terms of thermal stability, and superior to quartz in terms of effect strength and ability to form various ceramic forms.The compound has been used as an ultrasonic vibration generator and sound detector.
Titanium in the environment
Although titanium is not associated with other elements in nature, it is the ninth most abundant element in the Earth's crust (0.63% by mass) and is present in most igneous rocks and their derived sediments.Important titanium minerals are rutile, brookite, anatase, ilmenite and ilmenite.The main mined ore, ilmenite, exists in the form of huge placer deposits in Western Australia, Norway, Canada and Ukraine.Large rutile deposits in North America and South Africa also contribute significantly to world titanium supply.World metal production is approximately 90,000 tons per year and titanium dioxide production is 4.3 million tons per year.Titanium dioxide TiO2 is usually black or brown and is called rutile.Less common natural forms found in nature are anatase and magnesite.Both pure rutile and pure anatase are white.The black basic oxide FeTiO3 occurs naturally in a natural mineral called ilmenite; it is the main commercial source of titanium.
Health Effects of Titanium
Titanium has no known biological effects.There are detectable amounts of titanium in the human body,it is estimated that we consume about 0.8 mg per day, but most of it is not absorbed.It is not a toxic metal and the human body can tolerate large doses of titanium.Elemental titanium and titanium dioxide have low toxicity.Laboratory animals (rats) exposed to titanium dioxide by inhalation formed small dark dust deposits in the lungs.Overexposure in humans may cause mild changes in the lungs.Effects of overexposure to titanium powder:Inhalation of dust may cause chest tightness and pain, coughing and difficulty breathing. Contact with skin or eyes may cause irritation.Routes of Entry: Inhalation, Skin Contact, Eye Contact.Carcinogenicity:The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) classifies titanium dioxide as Group 3 (The substance is not classifiable for its carcinogenicity to humans.)
Environmental Impact of Titanium
Low toxicity.Titanium metal presents a serious fire hazard in metal powder form and an explosion hazard when heated in air.
No environmental impacts reported.
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