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Nickel's chemical properties

Views: 0     Author: Site Editor     Publish Time: 2022-08-01      Origin: Site

Chemical properties of nickel

Chemical properties

The peripheral electron arrangement is 3d84s2, which is located in the eighth group of the fourth cycle. The chemical property is more active, but it is more stable than iron. At room temperature, it is difficult to oxidize in air and react with concentrated nitric acid. Fine nickel wire is combustible, reacts with halogen when heated, and slowly dissolves in dilute acid. It can absorb a considerable amount of hydrogen.

Nickel is insoluble in water and forms a dense oxide film on the surface in humid air at room temperature, which can prevent the continuous oxidation of the bulk metal. It can slowly dissolve in dilute acid and release hydrogen to produce green positive divalent nickel ion ni2+; Strong alkali resistance. Nickel can burn in pure oxygen, emitting dazzling white light. Similarly, nickel can also be burned in chlorine and fluorine. It does not react with oxidant solution, including nitric acid. Nickel is a medium strength reductant. Nickel hydrochloric acid, sulfuric acid, organic acid and alkaline solution etch nickel very slowly. Nickel dissolves slowly in dilute nitric acid. Fuming nitric acid can passivate the surface of nickel and has corrosion resistance. Nickel, like platinum and palladium, can absorb a large amount of hydrogen during passivation. The smaller the particle size, the greater the absorption. Important salts of nickel are nickel sulfate and nickel chloride. Nickel nitrate is also commonly used in the laboratory, with crystal water, the chemical formula is Ni (NO3) 2 · 6H2O, green and transparent particles, which are easy to absorb water vapor in the air. Similar to iron and cobalt, it is relatively stable to water and air at room temperature and can resist alkaline corrosion. Therefore, nickel crucible can be used to melt alkali in the laboratory. Nickel sulfate (NiSO4) can form alum Ni (SO4) Ψ · 6H2O (MI is alkali metal ion) with alkali metal sulfate+ Divalent nickel ions can form coordination compounds. Under normal pressure, nickel can react with carbon monoxide to form highly toxic nickel tetracarbonate (Ni (CO) 4), which will decompose into metal nickel and carbon monoxide after heating.

Metal radius 124.6 PIM

First ionization energy: 741.1kj/mol

Electronegativity: 1.8

Main oxidation numbers: +2, +3, +4

Nickel (II) compoundbrushed nickel plate manufacturer - TIRONG TECH

1. Nickel oxide: nic2o4=nio+co+co2

2. Nickel hydroxide: ni2++2oh-=ni (OH) 2

3. Nickel sulfate: 2ni+2h2so4+2hno3=2niso4+no2+no+3h2o

NiO+H2SO4=NiSO4+H2O

NiCO3+H2SO4=NiSO4+CO2+H2O

4. Nickel halide: nif2, NiCl2, nibr2, nii2

Nickel (Ⅲ) compound

1. High nickel oxide

4NiO+O2=2Ni2O3

2Ni(OH)2+Br2+2OH-=Ni2O3+2Br-+3H2O

2Ni2O3+4H2SO4=4NiSO4+O2+4H2O

Ni2O3+6HCl=2NiCl2+Cl2+3H2O

2. High nickel hydroxide

4NiCO3+O2=2Ni2O3+4CO2

2Ni(OH)2+NaClO+H2O=2Ni(OH)3+NaCl

2Ni(OH)3+6HCl=2NiCl2+Cl2+6H2O

Complex

1. Ammonia coordination compound: [ni (NH3) 6]2+

2. Cyanogen coordination compound: [ni (CN) 4]2-

3. Chelate: [ni (EN) 3]2+

4. Carbonyl coordination compounds

(a)Ni(CO)4;

(b)(C2H5)2Ni

Preparation method of nickel

1. Electrolytic method. The enriched sulfide ore is roasted into oxide, reduced into coarse nickel with carbon, and then pure nickel is obtained by electrolysis.

2. Carbonylation method. The sulfide ore of nickel reacts with carbon monoxide to produce nickel tetracarbonate, which is decomposed after heating to obtain high-purity metal nickel.

3. Hydrogen reduction method. Nickel oxide can be reduced by hydrogen to obtain metallic nickel.

4. Oxygen is mixed into the blast furnace to replace sulfur, and nickel oxide can be obtained by heating nickel ore. This oxide reacts with the acid that has reacted with iron to obtain nickel metal.

5. After the ore is calcined into oxide, it is reduced with water gas or carbon to obtain nickel.

Toxicology of nickel

Nickel carbonyl

Nickel metal has almost no acute toxicity, and the general toxicity of nickel salt is also low, but nickel carbonyl can produce strong toxicity. Nickel carbonyl is rapidly absorbed by the respiratory tract in the form of steam, and can also be absorbed by a small amount of skin. The former is the main way for poisons in the working environment to invade the human body. Nickel carbonyl at a concentration of 3.5 μ G/m3 will make people feel like lamp smoke, and people feel uncomfortable at low concentration. Absorption of nickel carbonyl can cause acute poisoning, and initial symptoms will appear in about 10 minutes, such as dizziness, headache, unstable gait, sometimes nausea, vomiting, chest tightness; The late symptoms are nausea, vomiting, high fever, dyspnea, chest pain, etc. after 12 to 36 hours of exposure. Acute chemical pneumonia occurs when exposed to high concentration, resulting in death due to pulmonary edema and respiratory circulatory failure. When exposed to lethal dose, death occurs 4 to 11 days after the accident. The specific symptoms of nickel poisoning in humans are dermatitis, respiratory disorders and respiratory tract cancer.

Mutagenicity: neoplastic transformation: hamster embryo 5 µ mol/l.

Reproductive toxicity: the lowest oral toxic dose (tdl0) of rats: 158mg/kg (multi substitute), embryo poisoning, fetal rat death.

Carcinogenicity: IARC carcinogenicity review: animals are positive.

Migration and Transformation: nickel in natural water is often dissolved in water in the form of halide, nitrate, sulfate and some inorganic and organic complexes. Soluble ions in water can combine with water to form hydrated ions (Ni (H2O) 6) 2+, and form soluble organic complex ions with amino acids, cystine, fulvic acid, etc., which can migrate with water flow. The migration of nickel in water is mainly the formation of precipitation and coprecipitation, as well as the migration to the substrate in crystalline sediments. This migration of nickel accounts for 80% of the total migration; The migration of dissolved form and solid adsorption form accounts for only 5%. Therefore, most of the nickel in the water is concentrated in the bottom sediment, and the nickel content in the sediment can reach 18 ~ 47ppm, which is 38000 ~ 92000 times that in the water. Nickel in soil mainly comes from rock weathering, atmospheric dust, irrigation water (including nickel containing wastewater), farmland fertilization, and the decay of plant and animal remains. Plant growth and farmland drainage can also remove nickel from the soil. Generally, nickel ions entering the soil with sewage irrigation are adsorbed by soil inorganic and organic complexes, and mainly accumulate in the surface layer.

Storage and transportation conditions of nickel

Store in a cool and ventilated warehouse. Keep away from kindling and heat sources. The package shall be sealed and shall not be in contact with air. It should be stored separately from oxidants, acids, etc., and should not be mixed. Explosion proof lighting and ventilation facilities are adopted.

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