A coating is a covering applied to a surface, usually called a substrate. The purpose of applying a coating may be decorative, functional or both.  Coatings can be applied in liquid, gaseous or solid form, such as powder coatings.Paints and lacquers are coatings that mostly serve the dual purpose
There are many destructive and non-destructive evaluation (NDE) methods for characterizing coatings.  The most common destructive method is microscopic examination of mounted cross-sections of the coating and its substrate.  The most common non-destructive techniques incl
Titanium and its alloys are not only widely used in aviation and aerospace industry, but also in chemical industry, petroleum, metallurgy, paper making, textile, machinery and energy.
At present, the demand for titanium products in the military aviation industry accounts for 15% of the total demand for titanium products in the world, and it is likely to grow to 20-25% in 2-3 years.
Domestic production and consumption of titanium wire. The data shows that the annual output of titanium wire in China was 95t in 2012, a 51.5% decrease compared with 196t in 2011.